Statesmen must meet two sets of demands — those made by the opposing state and those made by domestic audiences. The domestic experience, meaning the domestic politics and social values of a state, may well prohibit certain policies that would best address the needs of the international system writ large.
This is a timeless obstacle facing the would-be statesman, and it only adds to his or her tragic existence. This view of history and diplomacy ultimately brings dark tidings. If the statesman is always fighting a losing battle against the engrained features of his government and society, disaster ultimately and cyclically strikes. Stability lulled states to sleep.
Even the ablest statesmen who refused to rest in their jobs would be unable to move nations who had become accustomed to peace. Gone were the lessons of the Napoleonic age that were acted on by Metternich and Castlereagh and such is the tragedy of history about which Kissinger was so concerned.
In making this claim the young scholar was criticizing modern trends in political science that attempted to discover covering laws for political interaction Ferguson , Nothing was given in world politics; rather, it was the product of an intractably intertwined historical experience. The practical implications of this last joint theme are clear. There were echoes between the Congress of Vienna and the modern era well worth exploring.
The Cold War was certainly tense and the Soviet Union a potential revisionist state, but stability could be achieved if legitimacy and equilibrium could be established. While the United States must confront the Kremlin, t was possible to promote an international order conducive to stability, if not peace. This would require, however, internalizing the experiences of 19 th century diplomatic wrangling in Vienna. Beyond his four themes, Ferguson eventually makes several closing observations about A World Restored and its author.
There are none of the outlines, subtitles, bulleted lists, or two-by-two tables that have come to characterize modern political science. Its insights into the past and present are wound throughout its chapters and seep from its paragraphs. Indeed, the reader who burrows into Restored will find other themes Ferguson left less thoroughly explored.
To be sure, these men faced the limitations imposed on them by their respective states, but they rose to the occasion and forged a system with lasting implications for European politics Kissinger , 5.
This could only be done because each acted in the interests of his respective state and pursued conservative foreign policy goals that buttressed international stability. In desiring to ensure Great Britain was not threatened by a Continental Europe under the command of a single power, Castlereagh used the negotiations in Vienna to engineer a system for balancing forces through the Quadruple Alliance Kissinger, , He ultimately hoped regular meetings between the Great Powers, called congresses, might offer a chance for this alliance to respond to security threats as they emerged and before they got out of hand.
Conservative, monarchal states of Europe would band together to prevent revolutions at home and abroad. In the end both Castlereagh and Metternich were vital to the stability that emerged from Vienna.
While these men were certainly products of their times, their times did not guarantee a particular outcome. In fact, there was much vacillation between potential policies within the governments concerned Kissinger , The dealings of Metternich and Castlereagh made the post-war world stable. After all, it is only the individual statesman who can engage in decisive moral acts, who can lead. As new models explaining political interaction are developed in the social sciences, we do well to remember this basic insight into the nature of politics that was so important to Kissinger even so early in his life.
Finally, there is a great deal of speculation about the role these historical figures played in the life Henry Kissinger beyond his dissertation. Fukuyama builds on this assessment. Rather, it was the kind of dissertation whose findings might help mold the mind of a man who would become a future practitioner, a subtle difference.
If there is a hero in Restored , however, it may well be Castlereagh Ferguson , Ferguson contends Kissinger is much more ambivalent toward Metternich than often considered in large part because even for all his diplomatic genius, the prince left his country in a much more difficult position than his British counterpart Ferguson , It would be as a realist that Kissinger would make his first-hand mark on the conduct of international affairs Kaplan Realism certainly became his creed.
This was a dangerous cycle, but it could be broken with a return to the conservative realism practiced by Metternich and Castlereagh according to the themes of Restored. It is this view that opened Kissinger up to some criticism. In fact, idealism, in either its traditional liberal form or in what became known as neoconservatism, played a hugely important role throughout modern history, for good or ill.
There is no dearth of policy recommendations that flow from A World Restored. Indeed, students of strategy and diplomacy will do best to consider these in some detail. First, Kissinger firmly makes the case for engaging in ongoing conservative, realist foreign policy. In his mind, it best matches the means of diplomacy and force with the ends of policy and ensures the legitimate, stable world order.
Such a world may not be perfect, but it is better than the chaos of revolution. In the Quadruple Alliance, it was the power that Great Britain brought to bear which ensured stability in Europe. States on the continent might align and realign with one another, but Great Britain could shift its allegiance as necessary to keep balance. If you want to buy a research paper , online writing service like ours is just what you need.
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