Skip Nav

Welcome to the Purdue OWL

See a Problem?

❶In the current version, punctuation is simpler only commas and periods separate the elements , and information about the source is kept to the basics. Sections are arranged by step-by-step process for researching and writing papers.

Navigation menu

Resources for MLA Style
Text Formatting
MLA Formatting and Style Guide

You might have read a book of short stories on Google Books , or watched a television series on Netflix. It is important to cite these containers within containers so that your readers can find the exact source that you used. Accessed 27 May In addition to the author, there may be other contributors to the source who should be credited, such as editors, illustrators, translators, etc.

If their contributions are relevant to your research, or necessary to identify the source, include their names in your documentation.

In the eighth edition, terms like editor, illustrator, translator, etc. A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Annotated and with an introduction by Vara Neverow, Harcourt, Inc. Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. If a source is part of a numbered sequence, such as a multi-volume book, or journal with both volume and issue numbers, those numbers must be listed in your citation. Current Conditions and Future Directions. The International Online-Only Journal, vol.

Accessed 20 May The publisher produces or distributes the source to the public. Museum of Modern Art, New York. Problems of the Digestive System. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Daniels, Greg and Michael Schur, creators. The same source may have been published on more than one date, such as an online version of an original source.

For example, a television series might have aired on a broadcast network on one date, but released on Netflix on a different date. When the source has more than one date, it is sufficient to use the date that is most relevant to your use of it. This is the way to create a general citation for a television episode.

However, if you are discussing, for example, the historical context in which the episode originally aired, you should cite the full date. The location of an online work should include a URL. The eighth edition is designed to be as streamlined as possible. The author should include any information that helps readers easily identify the source, without including unnecessary information that may be distracting. If a source has been published on more than one date, the writer may want to include both dates if it will provide the reader with necessary or helpful information.

The seventh edition handbook required the city in which a publisher is located, but the eighth edition states that this is only necessary in particular instances, such as in a work published before When you cite an online source, the MLA Handbook recommends including a date of access on which you accessed the material, since an online work may change or move at any time.

Accessed 4 May As mentioned above, while the eighth edition recommends including URLs when you cite online sources, you should always check with your instructor or editor and include URLs at their discretion.

A DOI, or digital object identifier, is a series of digits and letters that leads to the location of an online source. Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Wiley Online Library, doi: The in-text citation is a brief reference within your text that indicates the source you consulted. It should properly attribute any ideas, paraphrases, or direct quotations to your source, and should direct readers to the entry in the list of works cited.

When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference, like so Again, your goal is to attribute your source and provide your reader with a reference without interrupting your text.

Your readers should be able to follow the flow of your argument without becoming distracted by extra information. The current MLA guidelines teach a widely applicable skill. Once you become familiar with the core elements that should be included in each entry in the Works Cited list, you will be able to create documentation for almost any type of source. If you include the core elements, in the proper order, using consistent punctuation, you will be fully equipped to create a list of works cited on your own.

Russell, Tony, et al. Purdue Online Writing Lab. Common Words that Sound Alike Numbers: Text Elements Visual Rhetoric: Process and Materials Overview: An Introduction Researching Programs: Practical Considerations Researching Programs: Drafting Your Statement Statements of Purpose: The Basics In-Text Citations: Basic Rules Reference List: Articles in Periodicals Reference List: Other Print Sources Reference List: Electronic Sources Reference List: Organization and Structure Graduate Writing Workshops: Introductions Graduate Writing Workshops:

What Is MLA Style?

Main Topics

Privacy Policy

Double-space the entire research paper, including quotations, notes, and the list of works cited. Indent the first line of a paragraph half an inch from the left margin. Indent set-off quotations half an inch as well (for examples, see 76–80 in the MLA Handbook).

Privacy FAQs

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

About Our Ads

Two kinds of notes are suitable with the parenthetical citations used in MLA style Sample Papers in MLA Style The following two sample research papers are typical of the papers that might be submitted in different kinds of courses. The Modern Language Association, the authority on research and writing, takes a fresh look at documenting sources in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook. Works are published today in a dizzying range of formats.

Cookie Info

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers has 3, ratings and reviews. James said: According to the blurb on the back cover, NEWSWEEK has said th /5. For the most complete information, check your campus library or writing center for the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 8th ed. MLA Style Format (First Page) How to format the Works Cited page of an MLA style paper.