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Start with announcing your topic
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You can start your introduction with a few sentences which announce the topic of your paper and give an indication of the kind of research questions you will be asking.

This is a good way to introduce your readers to your topic and pique their interest. In scientific papers this is sometimes known as an "inverted triangle", where you start with the broadest material at the start, before zooming in on the specifics.

It provides the reader with an indication of the content of the essay and encourages them to read on. Consider referring to key words. When you write a research paper for publication you will be required to submit it along with a series of key words which give a quick indication of the areas of research you are addressing.

You may also have certain key words in your title which you want to establish and emphasise in your introduction. Define any key terms or concepts. It may be necessary for you to clarify any key terms or concepts early on in your introduction. You need to express yourself clearly throughout your paper so if you leave an unfamiliar term or concept unexplained you risk your readers not having a clear understanding of your argument.

Introduce the topic through an anecdote or quotation. If you are writing a humanities or social science essay you can find more literary ways to begin your introduction and announce the topic of your paper. It is common for humanities essays in particular to begin with an illustrative anecdote or quotation that points to the topic of the research.

This is a variation of the "inverted triangle" technique and can generate interest in your paper in a more imaginative way and demonstrate an engaging writing style. If you use an anecdote ensure that is short and highly relevant for your research.

It has to function in the same way as an alternative opening, namely to announce the topic of your research paper to your reader. For example, if you were writing a sociology paper about re-offending rates among young offenders, you could include a brief story of one person whose story reflects and introduces your topic.

This kind of approach is generally not appropriate for the introduction to a natural or physical sciences research paper where the writing conventions are different. Include a brief literature review. Depending on the overall length of your paper, it will be necessary to include a review of the existing literature already published in the field.

This is an important element of your paper which demonstrates that you have a strong knowledge and understanding of the debates and scholarship in your area. You should aim to indicate that you have a broad knowledge, but that you are engaging in the specific debates most relevant to your own research. It is important to be concise in the introduction, so provide an overview on recent developments in the primary research rather than a lengthy discussion. A strong literature review presents important background information to your own research and indicates the importance of the field.

Use the literature to focus in on your contribution. A concise but comprehensive literature review can be a very effective way to frame your own research paper.

As you develop your introduction, you can move from the literature to focus in on your own work and its position relevant to the broader scholarship. By making clear reference to existing work you can demonstrate explicitly the specific contribution you are making to move the field forward.

You can identify a gap in the existing scholarship and explain how you are addressing it and moving understanding forward. Elaborate on the rationale of your paper. Once you have framed your work within a broader context you can elaborate more fully on the rationale of your research and its particular strengths and importance. The rationale should clearly and concisely indicate the value of your paper and its contribution to the field.

For example, if you are writing a scientific paper you could stress the merits of the experimental approach or models you have used. State your research questions. Once you have indicated where your research sits in the field and the general rationale for your paper, you can specify the research questions the paper addresses.

The literature review and rationale frames your research and introduces your research question. An example of a research question could be "what were the consequences of the North American Free Trade Agreement on the Mexican export economy?

A good research question should shape a problem into a testable hypothesis. After you have specified your research questions you need to give a clear and concise articulation of your hypothesis, or your thesis statement.

This is a statement which indicates your essay will make a specific contribution and have a clear result rather than just covering a broader topic. If possible try to avoid using the word "hypothesis" and rather make this implicit in your writing. In a scientific paper, giving a clear one-sentence overview of your results and their relation to your hypothesis makes the information clear and accessible.

Outline the structure of your paper. In some cases the final part of an introduction to a research paper will be a few lines that provide an overview of the structure of the body of the paper. This is not always necessary and you should pay attention to the writing conventions in your discipline.

In a natural sciences paper, for example, there is a fairly rigid structure which you will be following. Sample Research Introduction for Humanities. Sample Research Introduction Starters. Do a sentence to get the reader interested in your topic and a sentence to state your thesis. You also want to include a few sentences briefly outlining the important points in the paper and some background information, if necessary. Write at least five to eight clear, concise sentences.

Not Helpful 13 Helpful I want to write an introduction on my research; the topic is carbohydrates. How can I do this? Carbohydrates are one of the three macronutrients in our diet fat and protein being the others. They exist in many forms and are mainly found in starchy foods such as bread, pasta, and rice, as well as in some beverages, e. Carbohydrates represent the most important source of energy for the body, and are vital for a varied and balanced diet. Not Helpful 21 Helpful Start with "I am so and so, here to present this" and not "My name is so and so.

Not Helpful 24 Helpful How would I write a research introduction about addiction to online gaming? Explain how online gaming has become a daily activity for many people and how it becomes addictive. Outline the basic points of the research you plan to present in the rest of your paper without getting into specifics. Not Helpful 16 Helpful How do I write a research introduction on the high school drop out rate? Start with a statistic and work from there.

The best thing you can start with is a catchy piece of information or phrase. Not Helpful 7 Helpful How do I write a research introduction on computer buses and performance?

You can say something like: State also how you plan to approach your topic. Is this a factual report, a book review, a comparison, or an analysis of a problem? Explain briefly the major points you plan to cover in your paper and why readers should be interested in your topic.

BODY — This is where you present your arguments to support your thesis statement. Remember the Rule of 3, i. Begin with a strong argument, then use a stronger one, and end with the strongest argument for your final point.

Explain why you have come to this particular conclusion. Organize all the information you have gathered according to your outline. Critically analyze your research data. Using the best available sources, check for accuracy and verify that the information is factual, up-to-date, and correct. Opposing views should also be noted if they help to support your thesis. This is the most important stage in writing a research paper. Here you will analyze, synthesize, sort, and digest the information you have gathered and hopefully learn something about your topic which is the real purpose of doing a research paper in the first place.

You must also be able to effectively communicate your thoughts, ideas, insights, and research findings to others through written words as in a report, an essay, a research or term paper, or through spoken words as in an oral or multimedia presentation with audio-visual aids. Do not include any information that is not relevant to your topic, and do not include information that you do not understand.

Make sure the information that you have noted is carefully recorded and in your own words, if possible. Plagiarism is definitely out of the question. Document all ideas borrowed or quotes used very accurately. As you organize your notes, jot down detailed bibliographical information for each cited paragraph and have it ready to transfer to your Works Cited page. Devise your own method to organize your notes. One method may be to mark with a different color ink or use a hi-liter to identify sections in your outline, e.

Group your notes following the outline codes you have assigned to your notes, e. This method will enable you to quickly put all your resources in the right place as you organize your notes according to your outline. Start with the first topic in your outline. Read all the relevant notes you have gathered that have been marked, e. Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to use in your essay.

Use a technique that suits you, e. Mark each card or sheet of paper clearly with your outline code or reference, e. Put all your note cards or paper in the order of your outline, e. If using a word processor, create meaningful filenames that match your outline codes for easy cut and paste as you type up your final paper, e. Before you know it, you have a well organized term paper completed exactly as outlined.

The unusual symbol will make it easy for you to find the exact location again. Delete the symbol once editing is completed. Read your paper for any content errors. Double check the facts and figures. Arrange and rearrange ideas to follow your outline. Reorganize your outline if necessary, but always keep the purpose of your paper and your readers in mind.

Use a free grammar and proof reading checker such as Grammarly. Is my thesis statement concise and clear? Did I follow my outline? Did I miss anything? Are my arguments presented in a logical sequence?

Are all sources properly cited to ensure that I am not plagiarizing? Have I proved my thesis with strong supporting arguments? Have I made my intentions and points clear in the essay? Re-read your paper for grammatical errors. Use a dictionary or a thesaurus as needed. Do a spell check. Correct all errors that you can spot and improve the overall quality of the paper to the best of your ability.

Get someone else to read it over. Sometimes a second pair of eyes can see mistakes that you missed. Did I begin each paragraph with a proper topic sentence? Have I supported my arguments with documented proof or examples? Any run-on or unfinished sentences? Any unnecessary or repetitious words? Varying lengths of sentences? Does one paragraph or idea flow smoothly into the next?

Any spelling or grammatical errors? Quotes accurate in source, spelling, and punctuation? Are all my citations accurate and in correct format?

Did I avoid using contractions? Did I use third person as much as possible? Have I made my points clear and interesting but remained objective? Did I leave a sense of completion for my reader s at the end of the paper? For an excellent source on English composition, check out this classic book by William Strunk, Jr. Place yourself in the background, Revise and rewrite, Avoid fancy words, Be clear, Do not inject opinion, Do not take shortcuts at the cost of clarity, … and much more.

The Elements of Style was first published in There is also a particular formatting style you must follow. There are several formatting styles typically used. APA American Psychological Association style is mostly used to cite sources within the field of social sciences. Instead of providing individual recommendations for each publishing format printed, online, e-books etc.

You should necessarily ask your instuctor which formatting style is required for your paper and format it accordingly before submitting. All formal reports or essays should be typewritten and printed, preferably on a good quality printer. Read the assignment sheet again to be sure that you understand fully what is expected of you, and that your essay meets the requirements as specified by your teacher.

Know how your essay will be evaluated.


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The introduction gives an overall review of the paper, but does address a few slightly different issues from the abstract. It works on the principle of introducing the topic of the paper and setting it in a broader context, gradually narrowing the topic down to a research problem, thesis and hypothesis. A great essay about privacy in the age of the internet: dr samuel johnson essays. Ecosystem sustainability essay easy essay on islamophobia good ways to conclude an essay quotes ap dbq essay us how to present research paper in international conference causes and effects of industrial revolution essay sports essay writing year 1. essay about united nations day clip how to write a research.

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NOTE: Even though the introduction is the first main section of a research paper, it is often useful to finish the introduction late in the writing process because the structure of the paper, the reporting and analysis of results, and the conclusion will have been completed. Reviewing and, if necessary, rewriting the introduction ensures that. Research Paper Introduction. It is often said that professors judge a paper almost entirely by the strength of its introduction and conclusion; the introduction is one of the most important elements of any research paper as it introduces the reader to the discussion at hand. Most students that ask for research paper help are supposed to.